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Biographical entry Clark, Graeme Milbourne (1935 - )

AC, FAA, FRS, Hon. FRCS

Born
16 August 1935
Camden, New South Wales, Australia
Occupation
Otolaryngologist

Summary

Graeme Clark became Professor of Otolaryngology at the University of Melbourne in 1970 and in 1999 was appointed Honorary Laureate Professorial Fellow. Clark was the leader of the team that developed the cochlear implant (bionic ear). The focus of his research was to enable profoundly deaf people to hear speech. His research team also developed other hearing devices, such as the electrotactile hearing aid, the "Tickle Talker". Clark's cochlear implant was to become a world leader in its field, and his team continued to engage in ground-breaking research into deafness for many years. In 2004, he was appointed Laureate Professor Emeritus at the University of Melbourne.

Details

Events

1958
Career position - Junior Resident Medical Officer at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney
1959
Career position - Senior Resident Medical Officer at the Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney
1960
Career position - Lecturer in Anatomy at the University of Sydney
1961
Career position - Registrar in Neurosurgery and Otolaryngology at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney
1962
Career position - Senior House Surgeon at the Royal National Ear Nose and Throat Hospital, London
1963
Career position - Senior Registrar in Otolaryngology at the Bristol General Hospital
1963 - 1966
Career position - Senior Assistant ENT Surgeon at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital
1964 - 1966
Career position - First Assistant to the Ear Nose and Throat Surgeon at the Alfred Hospital, Melbourne
1965 -
Career position - Senior Visiting Ear Nose and Throat Surgeon at the Repatriation General Hospital, Heidelberg
1966 - 1969
Career position - Senior Honorary ENT Surgeon
1967 - 1968
Career position - Lecturer in Physiology at the University of Sydney
1968 - 1973
Career position - Consultant Otolaryngologist at the Commonwealth Acoustic Laboratories
1969
Career position - Senior Research Officer at the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia
1970
Award - Bertha Sudholz Prize received from the University of Adelaide
1970 - 2004
Career position - William Gibson Professor of Otolaryngology and Chairman, Department of Otolaryngology at the University of Melbourne
1977
Patent - Hearing Prosthesis - Improvements in Prosthesis - awarded to G. Clark, J. Patrick, I. Forster, Y. Tong and R. Black
1978
Patent - Hearing Prosthesis - Improved Electrode Array - awarded to G. Clark, J. Patrick and Q. Bailey
1979
Patent - Improvements to Speech Processor - awarded to G. Clark, J. Patrick, J. Millar, P. Seligman and Y. Tong
1982
Patent - Hearing Prosthesis - Receiver/Stimulator - awarded to H. McDermott, P. Blamey, R. Black, G. Clark, D. Money, J. Patrick, Y. Tong
1983
Award - Officer of the Order of Australia (AO)
1985
Patent - Hearing Prosthesis - Prosthetic 'Flippy Tip' Electrode Array - awarded to G. Clark and H. Franz Hearing Prosthesis - Prosthetic 'Flippy Tip' Electrode Array
1985
Award - J.M. Crouch Fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons
1985 - 1988
Career position - Surgeon-in-charge at the Cochlear Implant Clinic at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital
1986
Award - Advance Australia Award received
1986
Award - Rotary Vocational Service Award received
1989
Award - Doctorate of Medicine honoris causa (Hon. MD) University of Sydney, Australia
1990
Award - Medal of Merit received from the Lions Clubs
1990
Patent - Hearing Prosthesis - Bimodal Speech Processor - awarded to P. Blamey, G. Dooley, G. Clark, P. Seligman
1992
Award - James Cook Medal received from the Royal Society of New South Wales
1992
Award - First Honorary Fellow, Audiological Society of Australia
1992
Patent - Curved 22-Channel Intracochlear Electrode Array - awarded to S. Xu, J. Xu, H. Seddon, F. Neilson, G. Clark, R. Shepherd
1993
Award - Clunies Ross National Science and Technology Award received
1994
Patent - Cochlear Implant System for Residual Hearing Stimulation - awarded to A. Vandali and G. Clark
1994
Patent - Transient Emphasis Speech Processing - awarded to A. Vandali and G. Clark
1994
Patent - Multiple Pulse Per Period (MP3) Electrical Stimulation Strategy for Cochlear Implants awarded to Irlicht and G. Clark
1995
Patent - Cochlear Implant Devices - awarded to G. Clark, L. Cohen and P. Bushby
1998
Award - Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science (FAA)
1998
Award - Doctorate of Medicine (Hon. MD), Medizinishche Hochschule, Germany
1999
Award - Australian Achiever Award received
1999
Award - Victoria Prize received
1999
Award - Rio Tinto Science Hero's Award - Industry received
1999 - 2004
Career position - Laureate Professor, the University of Melbourne
2000
Award - Cavalcade of Science Honour Award received from the Australian Institute of Political Science
2001
Patent - A Travelling Wave Sound Processor - awarded to P. Blaimey, H. McDermott, B. Swanston, J. Patrick and G. Clark
2002
Award - Aram Glorig Award received from the International Society of Audiology
2002
Award - Honorary Member of the American Ontological Society
2002
Award - Doctorate of Science honoris causa (Hon. DSc), University of Wollongong
2003
Award - Doctorate of Engineering (Hon. Deng), Chung Yuan Christian University, Taiwan
2003
Organisation - The Graeme Clark Cochlear Scholarship Foundation established
2003
Award - Honorary Fellow, Royal Society of Medicine, London
2004 -
Career position - Laureate Professor Emeritus, The University of Melbourne
2004
Award - Honorary Fellow, Royal College of Surgeons of England
2004
Award - Fellow of the Australian Acoustical Society
2004
Award - Prime Minister's Prize for Science received
2004
Award - Doctorate of Laws honoris causa (Hon. LLD), Monash University
2004
Award - Companion of the Order of Australia (AC)
2004
Award - Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS)
2005 -
Career position - Director Emeritus, The Bionic Ear Institute
2005
Award - A. Charles Holland Foundation International Prize received
2005
Award - International Speech Communication Association Medal received
2005
Award - Excellence in Surgery Award received from the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons
2005
Award - Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh Medal received
2005 - 2012
Career position - Bionics Program Leader, Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science
2006
Award - Ian Wark Medal and Lecture received from the Australian Academy of Science
2007
Award - Fellow of the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering
2007
Award - Zülch prize received from the Getrud Reemstsma Foundation, administered by the Max Planck Society, Munich
2007
Award - Lifetime Achievement Award received from the Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University
2008
Lecture - Inaugural Graeme Clark Oration, held annually at the University of Melbourne, delivered by Graeme Clark
2008
Organisation - The Graeme Clark Foundation established
2008
Award - Delivered the inaugural Graeme Clark Oration, the University of Melbourne
2009
Award - Otto Schmidt Award received from the International Federation of Medical and Biological Engineering
2009
Award - Honorary Bragg Membership, Royal Institute of Australia
2009
Organisation - The Graeme Clark Centre for Innovation in the Sciences, The Scots College, Sydney, established
2010
Award - Lister Medal received from the Royal College of Surgeons of England and Glasgow, Royal Society, Edinburgh University
2010
Award - Doctorate honoris causa, University of Zarogoza, Spain
2011
Award - CSL Florey Medal received from the Australian Institute of Policy and Science and Commonwealth Serum Laboratories (CSL)
2011
Award - Zotterman Medal received from the Nobel Institute for Neurophysiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm
2011
Organisation - The Graeme Clark Research Institute, Tabor College, Adelaide, established
2013
Award - Fellow of the National Academy of Inventors, United States
2013
Chair - The Graeme Clark Chair in Audiology and Speech Science, at the University of Melbourne, established by the Graeme Clark Foundation and the University of Melbourne
2013
Award - Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award received from the Lasker Foundation, New York
2013
Award - Honorary Doctor of Health Sciences, University of Technology, Sydney
2015
Award - Fritz, J. and Dolores H. Russ Prize received from the National Academy of Engineering, Washington DC, and Ohio University

Related Cultural Artefacts

Related Patents

Related People

Archival resources

Museum Victoria

  • Graeme Milbourne Clark - Records, 1968 - 1990; Museum Victoria. Details

National Archives of Australia, National Office

  • Professor Graeme Clark - Miniature Bionic Ear, 01 Jan 1948 - 31 Dec 1997, A9984, 1558588; National Archives of Australia, National Office. Details
  • Professor Graeme M Clark - General Representations (3002), 11 November 1980 - 23 April 1987, A463, 1986/G1182; National Archives of Australia, National Office. Details

National Film and Sound Archive of Australia

  • Graeme Clark/bionic ear collection [National Film and Sound Archive of Australia], 1956 - 2009; National Film and Sound Archive of Australia. Details

National Library of Australia

  • Graeme Clarke interviewed by Daniel Connell in the Australian Academy of the Humanities Fellows oral history project, ORAL TRC 6540/3; National Library of Australia. Details
  • Papers of Graeme M. Clark, 1944-2012 [manuscript], 1944 - 2012, 316678; National Library of Australia. Details

National Library of Australia Manuscript Collection

  • Middle ear and neural mechanisms in hearing and in the management of deafness [manuscript], 1969, MS 3104; National Library of Australia Manuscript Collection. Details

National Library of Australia Oral History Collection

  • Interview with Prof. Graeme Clarke, Director of Bionic Ear Institute and Laureate Professor of Otolaryngology [sound recording] / interviewer, Diana Giese, 3 October 2002, TRC 4897; National Library of Australia Oral History Collection. Details

National Museum of Australia

Private hands (Clark, G.M.)

  • Graeme Milbourne Clark - Records, 1970 - 1988; Private hands (Clark, G.M.). Details

Records Services, The University of Melbourne

  • Department of Otolarygology - Audiology - Administrative files 1970-1988, 1970 - 1988; T1996/44; Records Services, The University of Melbourne. Details

The University of Melbourne Archives

  • 1982.0111 University of Melbourne. Department of Otolaryngology, 1969 - 1981, 1982.0111; The University of Melbourne Archives. Details
  • 1990.0165 University of Melbourne. Department of Otolaryngology, 1965 - 1989, 1990.0165; The University of Melbourne Archives. Details
  • 2000.0005 University of Melbourne. Department of Otolaryngology, 1959 - 1964, 2000.0005; The University of Melbourne Archives. Details
  • Department of Otolaryngology - Bionic Ear Records, 1970? - 2004?; The University of Melbourne Archives. Details
  • Official Opening, Department of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, 1971, 2014.0110; The University of Melbourne Archives. Details

Published resources

Books

  • [Biographical cuttings on Prof. Graeme Clark, awarded the BHP Pursuit of Excellence award, for pioneering work with people with impaired hearing, containing one or more cuttings from newspapers or journals]. Details
  • Bondarew, Veronica and Seligman, Peter, The Cochlear Story, CSIRO, Canberra, 2012, 248 pp. Details
  • Clark, G. M., in collaboration with Blamey, P. J. [et al.], The University of Melbourne-nucleus multi-electrode cochlear implant, Karger Basel, New York, 1987. Details
  • Clark, Graeme M., Sounds from silence : Graeme Clark and the bionic ear story, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, NSW, 200. Details
  • Clark, Graeme M., Restoring the Senses, ABC Books for the Australian Broadcasting Commission, Sydney, NSW, 2007. Details
  • Clark, Graeme M. and Cowan, Robert S.C., International Cochlear Implant Speech and Hearing Symposium : Melbourne 1994, Annals Publishing Company, St Louis, Mo, 1995, 468 pp. Details
  • Clark, Graeme Milbourne, Science and God: Reconciling Science with the Christian Faith, Anzea, Surry Hills, NSW, 1979, 55 pp. Details
  • Clark, Graeme Milbourne, Cochlear implants: Fundamentals and Applications, Springer Verlag, New York, 2003, 830 pp. Details
  • Clark, Graeme Milbourne, Blamey, Peter. J., Brown, A. M., Gusby, P. A., Dowell, R. C., Franz, B. K., Pyman, B. C., Shepherd, R. K., Tong, Y. C., Webb R. L., Hirshorn, M. S., Kuzma, J. A., Mecklenburg, D. J., Money, D. K., Patrick, J. F., Seligman, P. M., Nucleus Multi-electrode Cochlear Implant (Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology), vol. 38, Basel: Karger, 1987. Details
  • Worthing, Mark, Graeme Clark: The Man Who Invented the Bionic Ear, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, 2015, 221 pp. Details

Book Sections

  • Clark, Graeme Milbourne, 'Cochlear Implants: Historical Perspectives', in Plant, Geoff and Spens, Karl-Erik (eds), Profound Deafness and Speech Communications, Whur Publishers, London, 1995. Details
  • Clark, Graeme Milbourne, 'Learning to understand speech with the cochlear implant', in Fahle, M. and Poggiio, T. (eds), Perceptual Learning, Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002, pp. 147-60. Details
  • Clark, Graeme Milbourne, 'Cochlear Implants', in Greenberg, S. (ed.), Springer Handbook of Auditory Research: Speech processing in the auditory system, Springer-Verlag, New York, 2003. Details
  • Clark, Graeme Milbourne, Black, R. C., Patrick, J. F., Tong, Y. C., 'Design criteria of a multiple-electrode cochlear implant hearing prosthesis', in Levitt, H., Pickett, J. M., and Houde, R. (eds), Sensory Aids for the Hearing Impaired, IEEE Press, New York, 1980, pp. 457-9. Details

Journal Articles

  • Blamey, P. J., Dooley, G. J., Parisi, E. S., Clark, G. M., 'Pitch comparisons of acoustically and electrically evoked auditory sensations', Hearing Research, vol. 99, 1996, pp. 139-50. Details
  • Busby, P. A., Clark G. M., 'Pitch estimation by early-deafened subjects using a multiple-electrode cochlear implant', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 107, 2000, pp. 547-58. Details
  • Busby, P. A., Clark, G. M., 'Pitch and loudness estimation for single and multiple pulse per period electric pulse rates by cochlear implant patients', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 101, 1997, pp. 1687-95. Details
  • Busby, P. A., Tong, Y. C., Clark, G. M., 'The perception of temporal modulations by cochlear implant patients', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 97, 1993, pp. 124-31. Details
  • Busby, P. A., Tong, Y. C., Hollow, R. D., Clark, G. M., 'Psychophysical and speech perception studies" A case report on a binaural cochlear implant subject', Audiology, vol. 31, 1992, pp. 95-111. Details
  • Chen, B. K., Clark G. M., Jones, R., 'Evaluation of trajectories and contact pressures for the straight nucleus cochlear implant electrode array: A two-dimensional application of finite element analysis', Medical Engineering and Physics, vol. 2, 2003, pp. 141-7. Details
  • Clark G. M., 'Responses of cells in the superior olivary complex of the cat to electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve', Experimental Neurology, vol. 24, no. 1, 1969, pp. 124-36. Details
  • Clark G. M., 'A hearing prosthesis for severe perceptive deafness ̶ experimental studies', Journal of Laryngology and Otology, vol. 87, no. 10, 1973, pp. 929-45. Details
  • Clark G. M., Hallworth, R. J., 'A multiple-electrode array for a cochlear implant', Journal of Laryngology and Otology, vol. 90, 1976, pp. 623-7. Details
  • Clark G. M., Hallworth, R. J., Zdanius, K., 'A cochlear implant electrode', Journal of Laryngology and Otology, vol. 89, 1975, pp. 787-92. Details
  • Clark G. M., Kranz, H. G., Minas, H., 'Behavioral thresholds in the cat to frequency modulated sound and electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve', Experimental Neurology, vol. 41, 1973, pp. 190-200. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Black, R. C., Forster, I. C., Patrick, J. F., Tong, Y. C., 'Design criteria of a multiple-electrode cochlear implant hearing prosthesis', Journal of Acoustical Society of America, vol. 63, 1978, pp. 631-3. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Blamey, P. J., Busby, P. A., Dowell, R. C., Franz, B. K. - H. G., Musgrave, G. N., Nienhuys, T. G. W., Pyman, B. C., Roberts, S. A., Tong, Y. C., Well, R. L., Kuzma, J. A., Money, D. K., Patrick, J. F., Seligman, P. M., 'A multiple-electrode intracochlear implant for children', Archives of Otolarygology, vol. 113, 1987, pp. 825-8. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Busby, P. A., Roberts, S. A., Dowell, R. C., Tong, Y. C., Blamey, P. J., Nienhuys, T. G. W., Mecklenburg, D. J., Well, R. J., Pyman, B. C., Franz, B. K. - H. G.,, 'Preliminary results for the Cochlear Corporation multi-electrode intracochlear implants on six prelingually deaf patients', American Journal of Otology, vol. 8, 1987, pp. 234-9. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Crosby, P. A., Dowell, R. C., Kuzma, J. A., Money, D. K., Patrick, J. F., Seligman, P. M., Tong, Y. C., 'The preliminary clinical trial of a multi-channel cochlear implant hearing prosthesis', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 74, 1983, pp. 1977-14. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Patrick, J. F., Bailey, Q. R., 'A cochlear implant round window electrode array', Journal of Laryngology and Otology, vol. 93, 1979, pp. 107-9. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Pyman, B. C., Bailey, Q. R., 'The surgery for multiple-electrode cochlear implantations', Journal of Laryngology and Otology, vol. 93, 1979, pp. 215-23. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Shepherd, R. K., Franz, B. K. - H. G., Dowell, R. C., Tong, Y. C., Blamey, S., Webb, R. L., Pyman, B. C., McNaughton, J., Kakulas, B. A., Siejka, S., 'The histopathology of the human temporal bone and auditory central nervous system following cochlear implantation in a patient: Correlation with psychophysics and speech perception results', Acta Oto-Laryngologica, suppl. 448, 1988, pp. 1-65. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Tong, Y. C., Black, R. C., Forster, I. C., Patrick, J. F., Dewhurst, D. J., 'A multiple-electrode cochlear implant', Journal of Laryngology and Otology, vol. 91, 1977, pp. 935-45. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Tong, Y. C., Dowell, R. C., 'Clinical results with a multi-channel pseudobilolar system', Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 405, 1983, pp. 370-7. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Tong, Y. C., Dowell, R. C., 'Comparison of two cochlear implant speech-processing strategies', Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, vol. 93, 1984, pp. 127-31. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Tong, Y. C., Martin, L. F., 'A multiple-channel cochlear implant. An evaluation using closed-set spondiac words', Journal of Laryngology and Otology, vol. 95, 1981, pp. 461-4. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Tong, Y. C., Martin, L. F. A., Busby, P. A., Dowell, R. C., Seldon, H. L., Patrick, J. F., 'A multiple-channel cochlear implant. An evaluation using nonsense syllables', Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, vol. 90, 1981, pp. 227-30. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Tong, Y. C., Martin, L. F., Busby, P. A., 'A multiple-channel cochlear implant. An evaluation using an open-set word test', Acta Oto-Laryngologica, vol. 91, 1981, pp. 173-5. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Tong, Y. C., Patrick, J. F., Seligman, P. M., Crosby, P. A., Kuzma, J. A., Money, D. K., 'A multi-channel hearing prosthesis for profound-to-total hearing loss', Journal of Medical Engineering and Technology, vol. 8, 1984, pp. 3-8. Details
  • Clark, G.M., Black, R.C., Forster I.C., Patrick, J.F., Tong, Y.C., 'Design Criteria of a Multiple-electrode Cochlear Implant Hearing Prosthesis', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 63, 1978, pp. 631-633. Also available at http://hdl.handle.net/11343/28713. Details
  • Clark, Graeme Mibourne, 'The multiple-channel cochlear implant: the interface between sound and the central nervous system for hearing, speech, and language in deaf people: a personal perspective', Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, vol. 361, 2006, pp. 791-810. Details
  • Clark, Graeme Milbourne, 'Personal reflections on the multi-channel cochlear implant and a view of the future', Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, vol. 45, no. 5, 2008, pp. 651-94. Details
  • Clark, Graeme Milbourne, 'The multi-channel cochlear implant and the relief of severe-to-profound deafness', Cochlear Implants International, vol. 13, no. 2, 2012, pp. 69-85. Details
  • Clark, Graeme Milbourne, 'The multichannel cochlear implant for severe-to-profound hearing loss', Nature Medicine, vol. 19, no. 10, 2013, pp. 1236-9. Details
  • Clark, Graeme Milbourne, 'The multi-channel cochlear implant: Multi-disciplinary development of electrical stimulation of the cochlea and the resulting clinical benefit', Hearing Research, vol. 322, 2015, pp. 4-13. Details
  • Clark, Graeme Milbourne, Clark, J. C., Furness, J. B.,, 'The evolving science of cochlear implants', Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 310, no. 12, 2013, pp. 1225-6. Details
  • Cohen L. T., Saunders E., Clark G. M., 'Psychophysics of a prototype peri-modiolar cochlear implant electrode array', Hearing Research, vol. 155, 2001, pp. 63-81. Details
  • Dahm, M., Clark, G. M., Franz, B. K. - H. G., Shepherd, R. K., Burton, M. J., 'Cochlear implantation in children: labyrinthitis following pneumococcal otitis media in unimplanted and implanted cat cochleas', Acta Oto-Laryngologica, vol. 114, 1994, pp. 620-5. Details
  • Dahm, M., Shepherd, R. K., Clark, G. M., 'The postnatal growth of the temporal bone and its implications for cochlear implantation in children', Acta Oto-Laryngologica, suppl. 505, 1993, pp. 5-39. Details
  • Flynn, M. C., Dowell, R. C., Clark, G. M., 'Aided speech recognition abilities of adults with a severe hearing loss', Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, vol. 41, 1998, pp. 285-99. Details
  • McKay, C. M., McDermott, H. J., Clark, G. M., 'Pitch percepts associated with amplitude-modulated current pulse trains in cochlear implantees', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 96, 1994, pp. 2664-73. Details
  • McKay, C. M., McDermott, H. J., Clark, G. M., 'The perceptual dimensions of single-electrode and non-simultaneous dual-electrode stimuli in cochlear implantees', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 99, 1996, pp. 1079-90. Details
  • Patrick, J. F. and Clark, G. M., 'The Nucleus 22 - Channel Cochlear Implant System', Ear Hear, vol. 12, no. 4, 1991, pp. 3S-9S. Details
  • Pyman, B., Blamey, P., Lacy, P., Clark, G., Dowell, R., 'The development of speech perception in children using cochlear implants: Effects of etiologic factors and delayed milestones', American Journal of Otology, vol. 21, 2000, pp. 57-61. Details
  • Shepherd, R. K., Clark, G. M., Pyman, B. C., Webb, R. L., 'Banded intracochlear electrode array: Evaluation of insertion trauma in human temporal bones', Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, vol. 94, 1985, pp. 55-9. Details
  • Surowiecki, V. N., Sarant, J. Z., Maruff, P., Blamey, P. J., Busby, P. A., Clarke, G. M., 'Cognitive processing in children using cochlear implants: the relationship between visual memory, attention and executive functions and developing language skills', Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, vol. 111, 2002, pp. 119-26. Details
  • Tong, Y. C., Clark, G. M., 'Loudness summation, masking, and temporal interaction for sensations by electric stimulation of two sites in the human cochlea', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 79, 1986, pp. 1958-66. Details
  • Tong, Y. C., Clark, G. M., Blamey, P. J., Busby, P. A., Dowell, R. C., 'Psychological studies for two multiple-channel cochlear implant patients', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 71, 1982, pp. 153-60. Details
  • Tong, Y. C., Clark, G. M., Seligman, P. M., Patrick, J. F., 'Speech processing for a multiple-electrode cochlear implant hearing prosthesis', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 68, 1980, pp. 1897-9. Details
  • van Hoesel, R. J. M., Clark, G. M., 'Fusion and laterization study with two binaural cochlear implant patients', Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, vol. 104, suppl. 166, 1995, pp. 233-5. Details
  • van Hoesel, R. J. M., Clark, G. M., 'Psychophysical studies with two binaural cochlear implant subjects', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 102, 1997, pp. 495-507. Details
  • van Hoesel, R. J. M., Clark, G. M., 'Speech results with a bilateral multi-channel cochlear implant subject for spatially separated signal and noise', Australian Journal of Audiology, vol. 21, 1999, pp. 23-8. Details
  • van Hoesel, R., Tong, Y. C., Hollow, R. D., Clark, G. M., 'Psychological and speech perception studies" A case report on a binaural cochlear implant subject', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 94, 1993, pp. 3178-89. Details
  • Vandali, A. E., Whitford, L. A., Plant, K. L., Clark, G. M., 'Speech perception as a function of electrical stimulation rate: Using the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system', Ear and Hearing, vol. 21, 2000, pp. 608-24. Details
  • Wei, B. Clark, G., O'Leary S., Shepherd, R. K., Robine-Browne, R., 'Meningitis after cochlear implantation', British Medical Journal, vol. 335, 2007, p. 1058. Details

Online Resources

Digital resources

Title
Professor Graeme M. Clark AC, FAA, FRS, Hon. FRCS: Curriculum Vitae
Type
Document

Details

Image
Title
Multi-channel Cochlear Implant - Electrical Stimulation of the Hearing Nerve
Type
Image

Details

Image
Title
Research - Health and food - Professor Graeme Clark and his invention, the Bionic Ear, 1984 [NAA: A6135, K12/9/84/2]
Type
Image
Date
1984
Control
K12/9/84/2

Details

Image
Title
Research - Health and food - Professor Graeme Clark with his bionic ear equipment [NAA: A6135, K2/7/84/42]
Type
Image
Date
1984
Control
K2/7/84/42

Details

Image
Title
Research - Health and food - Professor Graeme Clark with his bionic ear equipment [NAA: A6135, K2/7/84/41]
Type
Image
Date
1984
Control
K2/7/84/41

Details

Title
Cochlear Implant - Cochlear Limited, 'Nucleus 24', C124M, 1998
Type
Image
Date
1998
Place
Museum Victoria Collections

Details

McCarthy, G.J. & Jack Roberts