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Biographical entry Clark, Graeme Milbourne (1935 - )

AC, FAA, FTSE, FRS, Hon. FRCS

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    Graeme Clark, courtesy of Graeme Clark.
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Born
16 August 1935
Camden, New South Wales, Australia
Occupation
Otolaryngologist, Neuroscientist, Speech Scientist and Bioengineer

Summary

Graeme Clark became Professor of Otolaryngology at the University of Melbourne in 1970. From 1999 to 2004, he was promoted to Laureate Professor at the University of Melbourne. Clark was the leader of the team that developed the cochlear implant (bionic ear). The focus of his research was to enable profoundly deaf people to hear speech. His research team also developed other hearing devices, such as the electrotactile hearing aid, the "Tickle Talker". Clark's cochlear implant became a world leader in its field, assisted in its development by Cochlear Ltd, and his team continued to engage in ground-breaking research into deafness for many years. In 2005, he was appointed Laureate Professor Emeritus at the University of Melbourne, and in 2014 became Honorary Professor of Electrical Engineering.

Details

Summary of Graeme Clark's Discoveries Using Electrical Stimulation of the Brain (1967-)

Perception: Psychophysics

Temporal coding is essential for perception of low pitches and voicing; Place coding is essential for perception of timbre, vowels and consonants; Place coding of frequency requires early exposure to sound; Place coding is necessary for speech perception; Separate brain channels are required for temporal and place coding; Averaging over site of stimulation varies place pitch. Electrical charge is essential for coding loudness.

Speech and Language

Place coding is essential for frequency transitions in speech; Electrical excitation of the brain underlies the conscious experience of speech; Formant codes are important for understanding running speech; Speech coding is retained in memory after exposure to sound; Speech coding in a young child leads to good spoken language; Voicing integrates timing of place coded information for conscious experience of speech; Electrical excitation, and synapse connectivity and/or protein changes are suggested to underlie memory for speech sounds.

Bioengineering of the multi-channel cochlear implant (Bionic Ear)

Clark's first scientific achievement in the development of the bionic ear was in 1967. He demonstrated with neurophysiological studies the limitations of the temporal (rate) coding of electrical stimulation, and the need for stimulating different sites in the brain corresponding to a range of speech frequencies (place coding). He discovered in 1975 the best method of placing electrodes in the cochlea for safe and effective place coding.

Working with his engineers, he created the first prototype fully implantable multi-channel cochlear implant. In addition, as senior surgeon he led the surgical implantation of this prototype receiver-stimulator at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital on 1 August 1978.

Then working closely with PhD student Joe Tong, he became the first to explore the range of percepts from multi-channel electrical stimulation. This showed that the brain coded rate and place of stimulation through separate channels, and that a rapid shift in place coding could code consonants, which was essential for speech understanding.

His major breakthrough came when he realised that stimulating different sites in the brain affected not only the timbre or quality of the pitch, but also the perception of vowels. As a result - and together with colleagues - he showed how to code speech for its understanding. This made his work the first to bring electronic technology into a functional relation with the central nervous system. He then helped initiate - with funding from the federal government - the biomedical firm Cochlear Pty Ltd, which became the leader in this field for more than 30 years.

After appropriate safety studies in 1985, Clark became the first to insert a multi-channel implant in a child. His clinical team found that when profoundly deaf children were implanted as young as one year of age they could develop near-normal spoken language. In 1989, he was also the first to combine hearing in one ear with an implant in the other, and in 1990 successfully investigated implants in both ears.

He continued multi-disciplinary research to improve the performance of the bionic ear, and created the discipline Medial Bionics. This has formed the basis for bionic stimulation of the spinal cord in paraplegia, stimulating the eye for blindness, deep brain stimulation for drug resistant epilepsy and other bionic devices.

Events

1958
Career position - Appointed Junior Resident Medical Officer at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney.
1959
Career position - Appointed Senior Resident Medical Officer at the Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney.
1960
Career position - Appointed Lecturer in Anatomy at the University of Sydney.
1961
Career position - Appointed Registrar in General Surgery (Neurosurgery) and Otolaryngology at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney.
1962
Career position - Appointed Senior House Surgeon at the Royal National Ear Nose and Throat Hospital, London.
1963
Career position - Appointed Senior Registrar in Otolaryngology at the Bristol General Hospital, and Lecture in Otolaryngology at Bristol University.
1963 - 1966
Career position - Senior Assistant Ear Nose and Throat (ENT) Surgeon at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital.
1964 - 1966
Career position - First Assistant to the Ear Nose and Throat (ENT) Surgeon at the Alfred Hospital, Melbourne.
1965
Career position - Appointed Senior Visiting Ear Nose and Throat (ENT) Surgeon at the Repatriation General Hospital, Heidelberg.
1966 - 2004
Career position - Senior Honorary Ear Nose and Throat and Head and Neck Surgeon at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital.
1967 - 1968
Career position - Lecturer in Physiology at the University of Sydney.
1968
Research - MS (Sydney) awarded for thesis entitled 'the Principles of the Structural Support of the Nose and their Application to Nasal and Septal Surgery'.
1968
Career position - Appointed Consultant Otolaryngologist to Royal Melbourne, the Royal Women's, the Alfred and Prince Henry's hospitals.
1968 - 1973
Career position - Consultant Otolaryngologist at the Commonwealth Acoustic Laboratories.
1969
Career position - Appointed Senior Research Officer at the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia.
1969
Research - PhD (Sydney) awarded for thesis entitled "Middle ear and neural mechanisms in hearing and in the management of deafness".
1970
Award - Bertha Sudholz Prize received from the University of Adelaide.
1970 - 2004
Career position - William Gibson Professor of Otolaryngology and Chairman, Department of Otolaryngology at the University of Melbourne.
1977
Patent - Hearing Prosthesis - Improvements in Prosthesis - awarded to G. Clark, J. Patrick, I. Forster, Y. Tong and R. Black.
1978
Patent - Hearing Prosthesis - Improved Electrode Array - awarded to G. Clark, J. Patrick and Q. Bailey.
1979
Patent - Improvements to Speech Processor - awarded to G. Clark, J. Patrick, J. Millar, P. Seligman and Y. Tong.
1982
Patent - Hearing Prosthesis - Receiver/Stimulator - awarded to H. McDermott, P. Blamey, R. Black, G. Clark, D. Money, J. Patrick, Y. Tong.
1983
Award - Officer of the Order of Australia (AO).
1984 - 1993
Career position - Chief Investigator of National Health & Medical Research Council Program Grant: "Studies to Develop Sensory Prostheses for Deaf Children and Adults".
1984 - 1994
Career position - Chief Investigator of two US National Institutes of Health Grants (Improved Cochlear Implant: Psychophysics and Engineering" and An Advanced Multi-Channel Cochlear Implant for Deafness".
1985
Patent - Hearing Prosthesis - Prosthetic 'Flippy Tip' Electrode Array - awarded to G. Clark and H. Franz Hearing Prosthesis - Prosthetic 'Flippy Tip' Electrode Array.
1985
Award - J.M. Crouch Fellow of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
1985 - 1992
Career position - Chief Investigator of two US National Institutes of Health Contracts (Speech processors for auditory prostheses, NIH Contract No1-DC-9-2400 and Pediatric auditory prosthesis implants NIH Contract No1-NS-7-2342).
1985 - 2004
Career position - Founder and Surgeon-in-charge of the Cochlear Implant Clinic at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital.
1985 - 2005
Career position - Founder and Director of the Bionic Ear Institute.
1986
Award - Rotary Vocational Service Award received.
1986
Award - Advance Australia Award received.
1988 - 1993
Career position - Director, The Australian Research Council's Special Research Centre the Human Communication Research Centre, East Melbourne, Australia.
1989
Award - Doctorate of Medicine honoris causa (Hon. MD) University of Sydney, Australia.
1990
Award - Medal of Merit received from the Lions Clubs.
1990
Patent - Hearing Prosthesis - Bimodal Speech Processor - awarded to P. Blamey, G. Dooley, G. Clark, P. Seligman.
1992
Award - James Cook Medal received from the Royal Society of New South Wales.
1992
Patent - Curved 22-Channel Intracochlear Electrode Array - awarded to S. Xu, J. Xu, H. Seddon, F. Neilson, G. Clark, R. Shepherd.
1992
Award - First Honorary Fellow, Audiological Society of Australia.
1992 - 1997
Career position - Founder and Director, Co-operative Research Centre for Cochlear Implant, Speech and Hearing Research, East Melbourne, Australia.
1993
Award - Clunies Ross National Science and Technology Award received.
1994
Patent - Multiple Pulse Per Period (MP3) Electrical Stimulation Strategy for Cochlear Implants awarded to Irlicht and G. Clark.
1994
Patent - Transient Emphasis Speech Processing - awarded to A. Vandali and G. Clark.
1994
Patent - Cochlear Implant System for Residual Hearing Stimulation - awarded to A. Vandali and G. Clark.
1995
Patent - Cochlear Implant Devices - awarded to G. Clark, L. Cohen and P. Busby.
1997
Award - Sir William Upjohn Medal, The University of Melbourne (awarded every five years for outstanding contributions to medicine).
1998
Award - Doctorate of Medicine (Hon. MD), Medizinishche Hochschule, Germany.
1998
Award - Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science (FAA).
1999
Award - Rio Tinto Science Hero's Award - Industry received.
1999
Award - National Australia Day Council, Australian Achiever's Award (for pioneering research to enable the profoundly deaf to hear).
1999
Award - Victoria Prize received.
1999
Award - Australian Achiever Award received.
1999 - 2004
Career position - Laureate Professor, the University of Melbourne.
2000
Award - Cavalcade of Science Honour Award received from the Australian Institute of Political Science.
2001
Patent - A Travelling Wave Sound Processor - awarded to P. Blamey, H. McDermott, B. Swanston, J. Patrick and G. Clark.
2001 - 2002
Award - Senior Australian of the Year (for outstanding contribution to the welfare of Australians and international commitment).
2002
Award - Honorary Member of the American Otological Society.
2002
Award - Aram Glorig Award received from the International Society of Audiology.
2002
Award - Graeme Clark Room established at the Ear Foundation, Marjorie Sherman House, Nottingham UK.
2002
Award - Doctorate of Science honoris causa (Hon. DSc), University of Wollongong.
2002
Award - Centenary Medal.
2003
Award - Honorary Fellow, Royal Society of Medicine, London.
2003
Award - Doctorate of Engineering (Hon. Deng), Chung Yuan Christian University, Taiwan.
2003
Organisation - The Graeme Clark Cochlear Scholarship Foundation established.
2004
Award - Honorary Fellow, Royal College of Surgeons of England.
2004
Award - Doctorate of Laws honoris causa (Hon. LLD), Monash University.
2004
Career position - Appointed Laureate Professor Emeritus, The University of Melbourne.
2004
Award - Prime Minister's Prize for Science received.
2004
Award - Fellow of the Australian Acoustical Society.
2004
Award - Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS).
2004
Award - Companion of the Order of Australia (AC).
2004
Award - Australian Father of the Year Award (for his vision, determination and pioneering work in developing the bionic ear).
2005
Career position - Appointed Emeritus Otolaryngologist at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital.
2005
Award - Excellence in Surgery Award received from the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
2005
Career position - Appointed Director Emeritus, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital.
2005
Award - Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh Medal received.
2005
Award - A. Charles Holland Foundation International Prize received.
2005
Award - International Speech Communication Association Medal received.
2005 - 2007?
Career position - Lead Research Scientist in establishing the State Government of Victoria's Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) program, with the aim of bringing research and industry together to produce industrial outcomes.
2005 - 2012
Career position - Bionics Program Leader, Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science.
2006
Award - Ian Wark Medal and Lecture received from the Australian Academy of Science.
2006
Career position - Appointed Director Emeritus, The Bionic Ear Institute.
2006? - 2008?
Research - Member of the Expert Advisory Committee of the Australian Research Council.
2007
Award - Lifetime Achievement Award received from the Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University.
2007
Award - Zülch prize received from the Getrud Reemstsma Foundation, administered by the Max Planck Society, Cologne (Köln).
2007
Lecture - The Australian Broadcasting Commission's Boyer Lectures on 'Restoring the Senses' established.
2007
Award - Fellow of the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering.
2008
Lecture - Inaugural Graeme Clark Oration, held annually at the University of Melbourne, delivered by Graeme Clark.
2008
Organisation - The Graeme Clark Foundation established. It funded the Graeme Clark Chair in Audiology and Speech Science, and helped to sustain research and support into bionic ear and medical bionics generally.
2009
Award - Otto Schmidt Award received from the International Federation of Medical and Biological Engineering.
2009
Award - Honorary Bragg Membership, Royal Institute of Australia.
2009
Organisation - The Graeme Clark Centre for Innovation in the Sciences, The Scots College, Sydney, established.
2009 - 2011
Career position - Distinguished Professor, La Trobe University (the first Distinguished Professor appointed to La Trobe University).
2010
Award - Lister Medal received from the Royal College of Surgeons of England and Glasgow, Royal Society, Edinburgh University.
2010
Award - Doctorate honoris causa, University of Zarogoza, Spain.
2011
Organisation - The Graeme Clark Research Institute, Tabor College, Adelaide, established.
2011
Award - CSL Florey Medal received from the Australian Institute of Policy and Science and Commonwealth Serum Laboratories (CSL).
2011
Award - Zotterman Medal received from the Nobel Institute for Neurophysiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
c. 2012 - c. 2014
Career position - Appointed Professorial Fellow, University of Melbourne Department of Electrical Engineering, through the National Information Communications Techology Centre of Excellence (NICTA).
2013
Award - Graeme Clark Room established at Cochlear Centre in Macquarie University Sydney.
2013
Award - Honorary Doctor of Health Sciences, University of Technology, Sydney.
2013
Chair - The Graeme Clark Chair in Audiology and Speech Science, at the University of Melbourne, established by the Graeme Clark Foundation and the University of Melbourne.
2013
Award - Fellow of the National Academy of Inventors, United States.
2013
Award - Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award received from the Lasker Foundation, New York.
2014
Career position - Appointed Honorary Professor of Electrical Engineering, Univeristy of Melbourne.
2014
Award - Graeme Clark Room established at Cochlear Care Centre, Melbourne.
2014
Lecture - The Clark Lecture Series at Scots College Sydney is established.
2015
Award - Fritz, J. and Dolores H. Russ Prize received from the National Academy of Engineering, Washington DC, and Ohio University.
2015
Award - Medal from Paul Sabatier University.
2016
Award - Life Membership of the Australasian Society of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery - awarded on 7th March 2016.
2016
Lecture - Gave the Norbet Weiner Lecture (Norbet Weiner is a key figure in cybernetics which is used to develop the Bionic Ear).

Related Corporate Bodies

Related Cultural Artefacts

Related Patents

Related People

Archival resources

Museum Victoria

National Archives of Australia, National Office

  • Professor Graeme Clark - Miniature Bionic Ear, 01 Jan 1948 - 31 Dec 1997, A9984, 1558588; National Archives of Australia, National Office. Details
  • Professor Graeme M Clark - General Representations (3002), 11 November 1980 - 23 April 1987, A463, 1986/G1182; National Archives of Australia, National Office. Details

National Film and Sound Archive of Australia

  • Graeme Clark/bionic ear collection [National Film and Sound Archive of Australia], 1956 - 2009; National Film and Sound Archive of Australia. Details

National Library of Australia

  • Graeme Clarke interviewed by Daniel Connell in the Australian Academy of the Humanities Fellows oral history project, ORAL TRC 6540/3; National Library of Australia. Details
  • Interview with Prof. Graeme Clarke, Director of Bionic Ear Institute and Laureate Professor of Otolaryngology [sound recording] / interviewer, Diana Giese, 3 October 2002, TRC 4897; National Library of Australia. Details
  • Papers of Graeme M. Clark, 1944-2012 [manuscript], 1944 - 2012, http://nla.gov.au/nla.cat-vn316678; National Library of Australia. Details

National Museum of Australia

Private hands (Clark, G.M.)

  • Graeme Milbourne Clark - Records, 1970 - 1988; Private hands (Clark, G.M.). Details

Records Services, The University of Melbourne

  • T2005/025: NIH Grant Applications, 1987 - 1998; Professor Graeme Clark; Records Services, The University of Melbourne. Details
  • T2005/027: Bionic Ear Institute - Institute Establishment Files, 1984 - 1987; Professor Graeme Clark; Records Services, The University of Melbourne. Details
  • T2005/028: Bionic Ear Institute - Bionic Ear Institute Financial Records, 1988 - 1993; Professor Graeme Clark; Records Services, The University of Melbourne. Details
  • T2005/029: Bionic Ear Institute - Pamphletts, Brochures, Publications, 1974 - 2003; Professor Graeme Clark; Records Services, The University of Melbourne. Details
  • T2005/032: Bionic Ear Institute - Graeme Clarke Correspondence, 1968 - 1997; Professor Graeme Clark; Records Services, The University of Melbourne. Details
  • T2005/037: Bionic Ear Institute - Graeme Clark - Home/Office Files, 1970 - 2005; Professor Graeme Clark; Records Services, The University of Melbourne. Details
  • T2005/055: 2005 Transfers - Finding Aids and Supporting Documents, 1990s - 2000s; Records Services, The University of Melbourne. Details

The University of Melbourne Archives

  • Department of Otolaryngology - Bionic Ear Records, 1949 - 2000; The University of Melbourne Archives. Details
  • Official Opening, Department of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, 1971, 2014.0110; The University of Melbourne Archives. Details
  • University of Melbourne. Department of Otolaryngology, 1965 - 1989, 1990.0165; The University of Melbourne Archives. Details
  • University of Melbourne. Department of Otolaryngology, 1969 - 1981, 1982.0111; The University of Melbourne Archives. Details
  • University of Melbourne. Department of Otolaryngology, 1959 - 1964, 2000.0005; The University of Melbourne Archives. Details

Published resources

Books

  • [Biographical cuttings on Prof. Graeme Clark, awarded the BHP Pursuit of Excellence award, for pioneering work with people with impaired hearing, containing one or more cuttings from newspapers or journals]. Details
  • Bondarew, Veronica and Seligman, Peter, The Cochlear Story, CSIRO, Canberra, 2012, 248 pp. Details
  • Clark, G. M., in collaboration with Blamey, P. J. [et al.], The University of Melbourne-nucleus multi-electrode cochlear implant, Karger Basel, New York, 1987. Details
  • Clark, Graeme M., Sounds from silence : Graeme Clark and the bionic ear story, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, NSW, 2000. Details
  • Clark, Graeme M., Restoring the Senses, ABC Books for the Australian Broadcasting Commission, Sydney, NSW, 2007. Details
  • Clark, Graeme M., Sounds from silence : Graeme Clark and the bionic ear story, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, NSW, 2017. Details
  • Clark, Graeme M. and Cowan, Robert S.C., International Cochlear Implant Speech and Hearing Symposium : Melbourne 1994, Annals Publishing Company, St Louis, Mo, 1995, 468 pp. Details
  • Clark, Graeme Milbourne, Science and God: Reconciling Science with the Christian Faith, Anzea, Surry Hills, NSW, 1979, 55 pp. Details
  • Clark, Graeme Milbourne, Cochlear implants: Fundamentals and Applications, Springer Verlag, New York, 2003, 830 pp. Details
  • Clark, Graeme Milbourne, Blamey, Peter. J., Brown, A. M., Busby, P. A., Dowell, R. C., Franz, B. K., Pyman, B. C., Shepherd, R. K., Tong, Y. C., Webb R. L., Hirshorn, M. S., Kuzma, J. A., Mecklenburg, D. J., Money, D. K., Patrick, J. F., Seligman, P. M., Nucleus Multi-electrode Cochlear Implant (Advances in Oto-Rhino-Laryngology), vol. 38, Basel: Karger, 1987. Details
  • Epstein, June, The Story of the Bionic Ear, Hyland House, 1989. Details
  • Worthing, Mark, Graeme Clark: The Man Who Invented the Bionic Ear, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, 2015, 221 pp. Details

Book Sections

  • Clark, Graeme Milbourne, 'Cochlear Implants: Historical Perspectives', in Plant, Geoff and Spens, Karl-Erik (eds), Profound Deafness and Speech Communications, Whur Publishers, London, 1995. Details
  • Clark, Graeme Milbourne, 'Learning to understand speech with the cochlear implant', in Fahle, M. and Poggiio, T. (eds), Perceptual Learning, Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002, pp. 147-60. Details
  • Clark, Graeme Milbourne, 'Cochlear Implants', in Greenberg, S. (ed.), Springer Handbook of Auditory Research: Speech processing in the auditory system, Springer-Verlag, New York, 2003. Details
  • Clark, Graeme Milbourne, Black, R. C., Patrick, J. F., Tong, Y. C., 'Design criteria of a multiple-electrode cochlear implant hearing prosthesis', in Levitt, H., Pickett, J. M., and Houde, R. (eds), Sensory Aids for the Hearing Impaired, IEEE Press, New York, 1980, pp. 457-9. Details

Journal Articles

  • Blamey, P. J., Dooley, G. J., Parisi, E. S., Clark, G. M., 'Pitch comparisons of acoustically and electrically evoked auditory sensations', Hearing Research, vol. 99, 1996, pp. 139-50. Details
  • Busby, P. A., Clark G. M., 'Pitch estimation by early-deafened subjects using a multiple-electrode cochlear implant', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 107, 2000, pp. 547-58. Details
  • Busby, P. A., Clark, G. M., 'Pitch and loudness estimation for single and multiple pulse per period electric pulse rates by cochlear implant patients', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 101, 1997, pp. 1687-95. Details
  • Busby, P. A., Tong, Y. C., Clark, G. M., 'The perception of temporal modulations by cochlear implant patients', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 97, 1993, pp. 124-31. Details
  • Busby, P. A., Tong, Y. C., Hollow, R. D., Clark, G. M., 'Psychophysical and speech perception studies" A case report on a binaural cochlear implant subject', Audiology, vol. 31, 1992, pp. 95-111. Details
  • Chen, B. K., Clark G. M., Jones, R., 'Evaluation of trajectories and contact pressures for the straight nucleus cochlear implant electrode array: A two-dimensional application of finite element analysis', Medical Engineering and Physics, vol. 2, 2003, pp. 141-7. Details
  • Clark G. M., 'Responses of cells in the superior olivary complex of the cat to electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve', Experimental Neurology, vol. 24, no. 1, 1969, pp. 124-36. Details
  • Clark G. M., 'A hearing prosthesis for severe perceptive deafness ̶ experimental studies', Journal of Laryngology and Otology, vol. 87, no. 10, 1973, pp. 929-45. Details
  • Clark G. M., Hallworth, R. J., 'A multiple-electrode array for a cochlear implant', Journal of Laryngology and Otology, vol. 90, 1976, pp. 623-7. Details
  • Clark G. M., Hallworth, R. J., Zdanius, K., 'A cochlear implant electrode', Journal of Laryngology and Otology, vol. 89, 1975, pp. 787-92. Details
  • Clark G. M., Kranz, H. G., Minas, H., 'Behavioral thresholds in the cat to frequency modulated sound and electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve', Experimental Neurology, vol. 41, 1973, pp. 190-200. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Black, R. C., Forster, I. C., Patrick, J. F., Tong, Y. C., 'Design criteria of a multiple-electrode cochlear implant hearing prosthesis', Journal of Acoustical Society of America, vol. 63, 1978, pp. 631-3. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Blamey, P. J., Busby, P. A., Dowell, R. C., Franz, B. K. - H. G., Musgrave, G. N., Nienhuys, T. G. W., Pyman, B. C., Roberts, S. A., Tong, Y. C., Well, R. L., Kuzma, J. A., Money, D. K., Patrick, J. F., Seligman, P. M., 'A multiple-electrode intracochlear implant for children', Archives of Otolarygology, vol. 113, 1987, pp. 825-8. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Busby, P. A., Roberts, S. A., Dowell, R. C., Tong, Y. C., Blamey, P. J., Nienhuys, T. G. W., Mecklenburg, D. J., Well, R. J., Pyman, B. C., Franz, B. K. - H. G.,, 'Preliminary results for the Cochlear Corporation multi-electrode intracochlear implants on six prelingually deaf patients', American Journal of Otology, vol. 8, 1987, pp. 234-9. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Crosby, P. A., Dowell, R. C., Kuzma, J. A., Money, D. K., Patrick, J. F., Seligman, P. M., Tong, Y. C., 'The preliminary clinical trial of a multi-channel cochlear implant hearing prosthesis', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 74, 1983, pp. 1977-14. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Patrick, J. F., Bailey, Q. R., 'A cochlear implant round window electrode array', Journal of Laryngology and Otology, vol. 93, 1979, pp. 107-9. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Pyman, B. C., Bailey, Q. R., 'The surgery for multiple-electrode cochlear implantations', Journal of Laryngology and Otology, vol. 93, 1979, pp. 215-23. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Shepherd, R. K., Franz, B. K. - H. G., Dowell, R. C., Tong, Y. C., Blamey, S., Webb, R. L., Pyman, B. C., McNaughton, J., Kakulas, B. A., Siejka, S., 'The histopathology of the human temporal bone and auditory central nervous system following cochlear implantation in a patient: Correlation with psychophysics and speech perception results', Acta Oto-Laryngologica, suppl. 448, 1988, pp. 1-65. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Tong, Y. C., Black, R. C., Forster, I. C., Patrick, J. F., Dewhurst, D. J., 'A multiple-electrode cochlear implant', Journal of Laryngology and Otology, vol. 91, 1977, pp. 935-45. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Tong, Y. C., Dowell, R. C., 'Clinical results with a multi-channel pseudobulbar system', Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 405, 1983, pp. 370-7. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Tong, Y. C., Dowell, R. C., 'Comparison of two cochlear implant speech-processing strategies', Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, vol. 93, 1984, pp. 127-31. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Tong, Y. C., Martin, L. F., 'A multiple-channel cochlear implant. An evaluation using closed-set spondiac words', Journal of Laryngology and Otology, vol. 95, 1981, pp. 461-4. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Tong, Y. C., Martin, L. F. A., Busby, P. A., Dowell, R. C., Seldon, H. L., Patrick, J. F., 'A multiple-channel cochlear implant. An evaluation using nonsense syllables', Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, vol. 90, 1981, pp. 227-30. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Tong, Y. C., Martin, L. F., Busby, P. A., 'A multiple-channel cochlear implant. An evaluation using an open-set word test', Acta Oto-Laryngologica, vol. 91, 1981, pp. 173-5. Details
  • Clark, G. M., Tong, Y. C., Patrick, J. F., Seligman, P. M., Crosby, P. A., Kuzma, J. A., Money, D. K., 'A multi-channel hearing prosthesis for profound-to-total hearing loss', Journal of Medical Engineering and Technology, vol. 8, 1984, pp. 3-8. Details
  • Clark, G.M., Black, R.C., Forster I.C., Patrick, J.F., Tong, Y.C., 'Design Criteria of a Multiple-electrode Cochlear Implant Hearing Prosthesis', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 63, 1978, pp. 631-633. Also available at http://hdl.handle.net/11343/28713. Details
  • Clark, Graeme Mibourne, 'The multiple-channel cochlear implant: the interface between sound and the central nervous system for hearing, speech, and language in deaf people: a personal perspective', Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, vol. 361, 2006, pp. 791-810. Details
  • Clark, Graeme Milbourne, 'Personal reflections on the multi-channel cochlear implant and a view of the future', Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, vol. 45, no. 5, 2008, pp. 651-94. Details
  • Clark, Graeme Milbourne, 'The multi-channel cochlear implant and the relief of severe-to-profound deafness', Cochlear Implants International, vol. 13, no. 2, 2012, pp. 69-85. Details
  • Clark, Graeme Milbourne, 'The multichannel cochlear implant for severe-to-profound hearing loss', Nature Medicine, vol. 19, no. 10, 2013, pp. 1236-9. Details
  • Clark, Graeme Milbourne, 'The multi-channel cochlear implant: Multi-disciplinary development of electrical stimulation of the cochlea and the resulting clinical benefit', Hearing Research, vol. 322, 2015, pp. 4-13. Details
  • Clark, Graeme Milbourne, Clark, J. C., Furness, J. B.,, 'The evolving science of cochlear implants', Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 310, no. 12, 2013, pp. 1225-6. Details
  • Cohen L. T., Saunders E., Clark G. M., 'Psychophysics of a prototype peri-modiolar cochlear implant electrode array', Hearing Research, vol. 155, 2001, pp. 63-81. Details
  • Dahm, M., Clark, G. M., Franz, B. K. - H. G., Shepherd, R. K., Burton, M. J., 'Cochlear implantation in children: labyrinthitis following pneumococcal otitis media in unimplanted and implanted cat cochleas', Acta Oto-Laryngologica, vol. 114, 1994, pp. 620-5. Details
  • Dahm, M., Shepherd, R. K., Clark, G. M., 'The postnatal growth of the temporal bone and its implications for cochlear implantation in children', Acta Oto-Laryngologica, suppl. 505, 1993, pp. 5-39. Details
  • Flynn, M. C., Dowell, R. C., Clark, G. M., 'Aided speech recognition abilities of adults with a severe hearing loss', Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, vol. 41, 1998, pp. 285-99. Details
  • McKay, C. M., McDermott, H. J., Clark, G. M., 'Pitch percepts associated with amplitude-modulated current pulse trains in cochlear implantees', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 96, 1994, pp. 2664-73. Details
  • McKay, C. M., McDermott, H. J., Clark, G. M., 'The perceptual dimensions of single-electrode and non-simultaneous dual-electrode stimuli in cochlear implantees', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 99, 1996, pp. 1079-90. Details
  • Patrick, J. F. and Clark, G. M., 'The Nucleus 22 - Channel Cochlear Implant System', Ear Hear, vol. 12, no. 4, 1991, pp. 3S-9S. Details
  • Pyman, B., Blamey, P., Lacy, P., Clark, G., Dowell, R., 'The development of speech perception in children using cochlear implants: Effects of etiologic factors and delayed milestones', American Journal of Otology, vol. 21, 2000, pp. 57-61. Details
  • Shepherd, R. K., Clark, G. M., Pyman, B. C., Webb, R. L., 'Banded intracochlear electrode array: Evaluation of insertion trauma in human temporal bones', Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, vol. 94, 1985, pp. 55-9. Details
  • Surowiecki, V. N., Sarant, J. Z., Maruff, P., Blamey, P. J., Busby, P. A., Clarke, G. M., 'Cognitive processing in children using cochlear implants: the relationship between visual memory, attention and executive functions and developing language skills', Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, vol. 111, 2002, pp. 119-26. Details
  • Tong, Y. C., Clark, G. M., 'Loudness summation, masking, and temporal interaction for sensations by electric stimulation of two sites in the human cochlea', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 79, 1986, pp. 1958-66. Details
  • Tong, Y. C., Clark, G. M., Blamey, P. J., Busby, P. A., Dowell, R. C., 'Psychological studies for two multiple-channel cochlear implant patients', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 71, 1982, pp. 153-60. Details
  • Tong, Y. C., Clark, G. M., Seligman, P. M., Patrick, J. F., 'Speech processing for a multiple-electrode cochlear implant hearing prosthesis', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 68, 1980, pp. 1897-9. Details
  • van Hoesel, R. J. M., Clark, G. M., 'Fusion and laterization study with two binaural cochlear implant patients', Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, vol. 104, suppl. 166, 1995, pp. 233-5. Details
  • van Hoesel, R. J. M., Clark, G. M., 'Psychophysical studies with two binaural cochlear implant subjects', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 102, 1997, pp. 495-507. Details
  • van Hoesel, R. J. M., Clark, G. M., 'Speech results with a bilateral multi-channel cochlear implant subject for spatially separated signal and noise', Australian Journal of Audiology, vol. 21, 1999, pp. 23-8. Details
  • van Hoesel, R., Tong, Y. C., Hollow, R. D., Clark, G. M., 'Psychological and speech perception studies" A case report on a binaural cochlear implant subject', Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 94, 1993, pp. 3178-89. Details
  • Vandali, A. E., Whitford, L. A., Plant, K. L., Clark, G. M., 'Speech perception as a function of electrical stimulation rate: Using the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system', Ear and Hearing, vol. 21, 2000, pp. 608-24. Details
  • Wei, B. Clark, G., O'Leary S., Shepherd, R. K., Robine-Browne, R., 'Meningitis after cochlear implantation', British Medical Journal, vol. 335, 2007, p. 1058. Details

Theses

  • Clark, Graeme M., 'Middle ear and neural mechanisms in hearing and in the management of deafness [manuscript]', The University of Sydney. Carbon typescript. 2 volumes., PhD thesis, 1969. Also available at http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/1194830. Details

Online Resources

Digital resources

Title
Professor Graeme M. Clark AC, FAA, FRS, Hon. FRCS: Curriculum Vitae
Type
Document

Details

Title
Graeme Clark
Type
Image
Source
Graeme Clark

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Title
Experimental physiological studies by Graeme Clark, assisted by Field Rickards and Don McMahon.
Type
Image
Date
1973
Source
Graeme Clark

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Title
Silicon chips and substrate
Type
Image
Date
1976
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Graeme Clark

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Title
With the first University of Melbourne receiver-stimulators
Type
Image
Date
1978 - 1979
Source
Graeme Clark

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Title
Rod Saunders speaks with his wife Margaret with his new wearable speech processor
Type
Image
Date
1979
Source
Graeme Clark

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Title
Second patient George Watson and Dr. Jo Tong with wearable speech processor
Type
Image
Date
1979
Source
Graeme Clark

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Title
Clark with first patient Rod Saunders and Multi-Channel implant
Type
Image
Date
1979
Source
Graeme Clark

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Title
Clark supervising a cochlear implant operation at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital
Type
Image
Date
1979
Source
Graeme Clark

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Title
Clark extended the neurophysiology with Eric Javel (Boys Town) and Jo Tong
Type
Image
Date
1980s
Source
Graeme Clark

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Title
Joint Planning Meeting for Industrial Development, Nucleus Ltd, Lane Cove
Type
Image
Date
1980s
Source
Graeme Clark

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Title
The First Nucleus receiver-stimulator implanted by Graeme Clark and team
Type
Image
Date
1982
Source
Graeme Clark

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Title
Graeme Clark with Cochlear's first multi-channel Nucleus implant he inserted in a patient in 1982
Type
Image
Date
1982
Source
Graeme Clark

Details

Title
Audiologist Richard Dowell tests first Cochlear patient Graham Carrick
Type
Image
Date
1982
Source
Graeme Clark

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Title
Clark demonstrating the way to insert the bundle of electrodes around the spiral of the cochlea came through passing grass blades around shells
Type
Image
Date
1984
Source
Graeme Clark

Details

Title
Graeme Clark holding the mini-implant developed by Cochlear Ltd
Type
Image
Date
1985
Source
Graeme Clark

Details

Title
Scott Smith the first child (aged 10) to have the Cochlear multi-channel implant in 1985
Type
Image
Date
1985
Source
Graeme Clark

Details

Title
Peter Stewart the first in the world to have bilateral cochlear implants
Type
Image
Date
1989
Source
Graeme Clark

Details

Title
Sian Neam following her cochlear implant operation
Type
Image
Date
1990
Source
Graeme Clark

Details

Title
Graeme Clark examines his father Colin Milbourne Clark's ear
Type
Image
Date
1995
Source
Graeme Clark

Details

Title
Cochlear Implant - Cochlear Limited, 'Nucleus 24', C124M, 1998
Type
Image
Date
1998
Source
Museum Victoria

Details

Title
Queen Elizabeth II visits the Bionic Ear Institute and meets the first adult (Rod Saunders) and young child (Bryn Davies) who previously had implants
Type
Image
Date
2000
Source
Graeme Clark

Details

Title
Graeme Clark (right) receiving his Honorary Fellowship, Royal Society of Medicine from Sir Barry Jackson
Type
Image
Date
2003
Place
Royal Society of Medicine, London
Source
Graeme Clark

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Title
Graeme Clark is awarded an AC by the Governor General Sir Michael Jeffrey
Type
Image
Date
2004
Source
Graeme Clark

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Title
Graeme Clark at the Hunterian Museum at the Royal College of Surgeons
Type
Image
Date
2010
Source
Graeme Clark

Details

Title
Graeme Clark with wife Margaret Clark at his conferring as an Honorary Fellow, Royal College of Surgeons, London
Type
Image
Date
2010
Source
Graeme Clark

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Title
Graeme Clark with wife Margaret Clark receiving an honorary doctorate from Zaragoza University, Spain
Type
Image
Date
2010
Source
Graeme Clark

Details

Title
Listen I'm speaking - Part 1
Type
Video
Date
2011
Creator
Paul Drane Producer/Director

Details

Title
Listen I'm speaking - Part 2
Type
Video
Date
2011
Creator
Paul Drane Producer/Director

Details

Title
Clark Cochlear 30 years
Type
Video
Date
2012
Creator
Paul Drane Producer/Director

Details

Title
Graeme Clark, Ingeborg Hochmaier and Blake Wilson receiving Lasker De Bakey Award in Clinical Medical Research
Type
Image
Date
2013
Source
Graeme Clark

Details

Title
Never Say Never - The Graeme Clark Story
Type
Video
Date
2013
Creator
Paul Drane Producer/Director

Details

Title
Graeme Clark with Russ Prize and Medal
Type
Image
Date
2015
Source
Graeme Clark

Details

Title
From Bionic Ear to world's first cochlear implant. A journey with Prof. Graeme Clark
Type
Video
Date
2016
Creator
Paul Drane Producer/Director

Details

McCarthy, G.J., Roberts, J., Tropea, R., Clark, G.