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Ferguson, J. M.
Australian Defence Forces: The Defence of Port Phillip Heads 1859-1945
Eleventh National Conference on Engineering Heritage: Federation Engineering a Nation; Proceedings
Institution of Engineers, Australia, Barton, Australian Capital Territory, 2001, pp. 149-151

In the 19th century, each colony maintained an army and a navy. Forts were built to guard the ports of important cities. Hydro-pneumatic disappearing guns, advanced technology at the time, were installed. Description of these guns is presented. In the years before federation it became evident that an Australian defence service was needed, instead of six colonies each with an army and navy. The development of coordinated defence services in the 20th century benefited from the skills of men such as John Monash, an engineer with a great command of the English language, and Alfred Deakin, a politician with persuasive oratory and a remarkable ability to comprehend the benefit of adopting the latest technology. As a result, the Australian defence forces performed with distinction in the 20th century.

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